The Toppila Power Station , a peat-fired facility in Oulu , Finland The climate, geography, and environment of Finland favours bog and peat bog formation. Thus, peat is available in considerable quantities. This abundant resource often mixed with wood at an average of 2. Peat provides around 6. Finland classifies peat as a slowly renewing biomass fuel. Also, agricultural and forestry-drained peat bogs actively release more CO2 annually than is released in peat energy production in Finland. Furthermore, it is a common practice to forest used peat bogs instead of giving them a chance to renew.
Dating of Sediments using Lead-210
Dating of Sediments using Lead The naturally lead isotope Pb may be used to date aquatic sediments and peat bogs. The method is suitable for dating approximately years back. Service DHI offers dating of sediment cores by means of the Pb method and may assist with sampling in both marine and freshwater systems. The sediment samples must remain totally undisturbed during sampling to obtain the best possible dating.
Measurement of Pb. There are three alternative methods of analyzing the concentration of Pb in a sample.. Pb emits a low energy beta which is very difficult to detect. However when it decays, it also emits a 49kev gamma photon.
Isotopes of lead Natural lead consists of four stable isotopes with mass numbers of , , , and ,  and traces of five short-lived radioisotopes. Lead has neutrons, another magic number, which may explain why lead is extraordinarily stable. This title was formerly held by bismuth, with an atomic number of 83, until its only primordial isotope , bismuth , was found in to decay very slowly.
These decay chains are called the uranium series, the actinium series, and the thorium series. Their isotopic concentration in a natural rock sample depends greatly on the presence of these three parent uranium and thorium isotopes. As uranium decays into lead, their relative amounts change; this is the basis for uranium—lead dating. Uranium—lead dating and lead—lead dating on this meteorite allowed refinement of the age of the Earth to 4. Apart from the stable isotopes, which make up almost all lead that exists naturally, there are trace quantities of a few radioactive isotopes.
One of them is lead ; although it has a half-life of only Lead , , and are present in the decay chains of uranium , thorium , and uranium , respectively, so traces of all three of these lead isotopes are found naturally. Minute traces of lead arise from the very rare cluster decay of radium , one of the daughter products of natural uranium Lead is particularly useful for helping to identify the ages of samples by measuring its ratio to lead both isotopes are present in a single decay chain.
Lead carbonate is a common constituent;    the sulfate or chloride may also be present in urban or maritime settings. The reaction with chlorine is similar but requires heating as the resulting chloride layer diminishes the reactivity of the elements.
Isotopes of lead
Enhanced sedimentation rates can lead to the smothering of benthic communities, which can affect how nutrients are recycled. What causes sedimentation rates to change? Some natural controls on the sedimentation rates experienced by coastal waterways include climate rainfall, seasonality , geology, slope or topography , vegetation and the size of the catchment.
As a result, modern infilling rates in some Australian coastal waterways are at least double those experienced during the late Holocene Table 1 .
Roughly fifty years ago, a small group of scientists from Belgium and the United States, trying to better constrain ice sheet accumulation rates, attempted to apply what was then know about environmental lead as a potential geochronometer.
Potential catastrophic reduction of sea-ice in the western Arctic Ocean —its impact on the biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystems— Global and Planetary Change, , , http: Harada Distribution and vertical fluxes of silicoflagellates, eburidians and the endoskeletal dinoflagellate Actiniscus in the in the western Arctic Ocean. Polar Biology accepted 22 Aug Onodera J. Harada Flux variations and vertical distributions of siliceous Rhizaria Radiolaria and Phaeodaria in the western Arctic Ocean: Kikuchi Seasonal changes in the population structure of dominant planktonic copepods collected using a sediment trap moored in the western Arctic Ocean.
Kishi Enhanced role of eddies in the Arctic marine biological pump, Nature Comm.
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences , He and Ar isotope geochemistry of pyroxene megacrysts and mantle xenoliths in Cenozoic basalt from the Changle-Linqu area in western Shandong. Chinese Science Bulletin, inpress. Siberian Traps large igneous province: Evidence for two flood basalt pulses around the PermoTriassic boundary and in the Middle Triassic, and contemporaneous granitic magmatism.
Earth Science Reviews ,
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Measurement of Pb There are three alternative methods of analyzing the concentration of Pb in a sample. However when it decays, it also emits a 49kev gamma photon. The gamma photon can be measured by gamma ray spectroscopy provided that the detector is designed so that the low energy photon can penetrate into the active volume of a germanium detector. The daughter of Pb is Bi. The half-life of Bi is quite short a few days so this analysis must be conducted promptly after separating the Bi from the sample.
The grand daughter of Pb is Po. It emits an alpha particle. These emissions can be detected by alpha spectrometry.
Decay chain Pb is the final step in the decay chain of U , the “radium series” or “uranium series”. In a closed system, over time, a given mass of U will decay in a sequence of steps culminating in Pb. The production of intermediate products eventually reaches an equilibrium though this takes a long time, as the half-life of U is , years.
Once this stabilized system is reached, the ratio of U to Pb will steadily decrease, while the ratios of the other intermediate products to each other remain constant. Like most radioisotopes found in the radium series, Pb was initially named as a variation of radium, specifically radium G.
In Radioactive Dating. Proceedings of the Symposium on Radioactive Dating Held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Co-operation with the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity, Athens, November 19–23, , pp. –
Main isotopes of lead (See lead-lead dating and uranium-lead dating). The longest-lived radioisotopes are Pb with a half-life of ≈ million years and Pb with a half-life of ≈53, years. Of naturally occurring radioisotopes, the longest half-life is years for Pb.
The Pb dating may be supplemented with dating of the caesium Cs isotope. This isotope was released in huge quantities in connection with the atmospheric nuclear explosions in and later by the Tjernobyl accident in