Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point

Some speculate that White racism developed because of a need to salve a wounded conscience because of the atrocities committed in the Americas, and the subsequent trade in sub-Saharan slaves. Therefore Whites could continue the fantasy of thinking of themselves as an enlighten and advanced people. And it was indeed a fantasy; contrary to the contrivances of modern White historians: Whites in Europe had failed miserably at building upon the advanced civilizations that they had taken, by force, from the original Black inhabitants. No device, no science, and no art, of the Classical Greek or Roman Empires, can be shown to have not existed elsewhere first. Previous to the wealth taken from the Americas, and the industrial revolution of the s: Europe was a decease ravaged and laggard land; comprised of kingdoms made up mostly of destitute peasantry.


From where did they come and what routes did they take? These questions have gripped scientists for decades, but until recently answers have proven difficult to find. New techniques of molecular genetic analysis, and a reinvigorated search for early archaeological sites across the western hemisphere, recently have led to some astounding results.

The route taken by the first explorers appears to have been along the recently deglaciated north Pacific coastline.

Is this worth reading – is it True? On the matter of credibility: On first reading, readers of these pages generally feel amazement, the concept of Blacks being the original settlers, and builders of the first civilizations everywhere, including Europe, is particularly unsettling to them.

A Abbreviations This information is included in Appendix A: Abbreviations , which includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions. Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement.

Administrative divisions This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN. Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters.

Age structure This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group as follows: The age structure of a population affects a nation’s key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations high percentage ages 65 and over need to invest more in the health sector.

The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues.

Law of faunal succession

The first filial generation produced by crossing two parental strains. A condition in some hominid faces where the nasal bones and the borders of the piriform aperture are recessed relative to the cheeks, making the midface area concave. A multivariate statistical technique which assesses the degree of variation between artifact types, and is based on a matrix of correlation coefficients which measure the relative association between any two variables.

The Great American Interchange was an important late Cenozoic paleozoogeographic event in which land and freshwater fauna migrated from North America via Central America to South America and vice versa, as the volcanic Isthmus of Panama rose up from the sea floor and bridged the formerly separated gh there were earlier dispersals, probably over water, the migration accelerated.

Tertiary mammals of the western United States 4. Tertiary bird and mammal tracks and the Devils corkscrews 5. Tertiary volcanism in the northwest United States 6. The cooling of ocean basalt while the continents rise Table 1. Why is the boundary important? Creationists are interested in identifying the post-Flood boundary for several reasons. Perhaps the most important is to show the presence of the Flood in the rock record to those who do not believe it ever occurred.

Great American Interchange

See Article History Alternative Title: Mammalia Mammal, class Mammalia , any member of the group of vertebrate animals in which the young are nourished with milk from special mammary glands of the mother. In addition to these characteristic milk glands, mammals are distinguished by several other unique features. Hair is a typical mammalian feature, although in many whales it has disappeared except in the fetal stage. The mammalian lower jaw is hinged directly to the skull , instead of through a separate bone the quadrate as in all other vertebrates.

evolution of the arctic-north atlantic and the western tethys–a visual presentation of a series of paleogeographic-paleotectonic maps*, peter a. ziegler.

Making the transition to the third era of natural resources management , by Nathan L. This is an ideal paper for probing the psychological anguish that accompanies the pragmatic shift in conservation paradigms forced by rapid climate change. The author has worked in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park for 35 years, and he wrote this essay as a contribution to the National Park Service Centennial in This third era promises to overturn not only some of our most fundamental assumptions about parks and protected areas, but also many of the ideals we currently hold dear.

A common initial reaction to the diverse challenges of this transition is to feel overwhelmed and adrift; I have certainly had such feelings myself. But these feelings carry the risk of reducing our effectiveness as resource stewards right when we can least afford to be less effective: Here I briefly examine some of the challenges of this new era, focusing on those that can most often elicit feelings of discouragement.

Recovery from this despair was gradual, with no flipping of light switches.

Online Journal for E&P Geoscientists

Adapted here for online presentation; included are the maps in time-lapse sequence, which require downloading for economy of online time. For references, please refer to Memoir 43, p. The Western Tethys realm embraces the Mediterranean Sea, its Alpine fold belts, and the adjacent cratonic areas. Thus, the area covered by this compilation includes much of northeastern North America and Greenland, all of Europe, and the northern parts of North Africa.

ASSISTED COLONIZATION is the intentional movement and release of an organism outside its indigenous range to avoid extinction of populations of the focal species.. ECOLOGICAL REPLACEMENT is the intentional movement and release of an organism outside its indigenous range to perform a specific ecological function.. See the 3-fold chart immediately below for distinctions between three forms of.

Tweet methods dates sample age Dating techniques are procedures used by scientists to determine the age of a specimen. Relative dating methods tell only if one sample is older or younger than another; absolute dating methods provide a date in years. The latter have generally been available only since Many absolute dating techniques take advantage of radioactive decay , whereby a radioactive form of an element is converted into a non-radioactive product at a regular rate.

Others, such as amino acid racimization and cation-ratio dating, are based on chemical changes in the organic or inorganic composition of a sample. In recent years, a few of these methods have come under close scrutiny as scientists strive to develop the most accurate dating techniques possible. Relative dating methods determine whether one sample is older or younger than another. They do not provide an age in years. Before the advent of absolute dating methods, nearly all dating was relative.

The main relative dating method is stratigraphy. Absolute dating is the term used to describe any dating technique that tells how old a specimen is in years.

Cambrian Period

General features Diversity The evolution of the class Mammalia has produced tremendous diversity in form and habit. Living kinds range in size from a bat weighing less than a gram and tiny shrews weighing but a few grams to the largest animal that has ever lived, the blue whale , which reaches a length of more than 30 metres feet and a weight of metric tons nearly short [U. Every major habitat has been exploited by mammals that swim, fly, run, burrow, glide, or climb.

A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, abbreviated GSSP, is an internationally agreed upon reference point on a stratigraphic section which defines the lower boundary of a stage on the geologic time effort to define GSSPs is conducted by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, a part of the International Union of Geological Sciences.

Marsupials present in South America included didelphimorphs opossums and several other small groups ; larger predatory relatives of these also existed, like the borhyaenids and the sabertooth Thylacosmilus sparassodont metatherians which are no longer considered to be true marsupials. Metatherians and a few xenarthran armadillos like Macroeuphractus were the only South American mammals to specialize as carnivores ; their relative inefficiency created openings for nonmammalian predators to play more prominent roles than usual similar to the situation in Australia.

Sparassodonts and giant opossums shared the ecological niches for large predators with fearsome flightless “terror birds” phorusrhacids , whose closest extant relatives are the seriemas. Through the skies over late Miocene South America 6 Ma ago soared the largest flying bird known, the teratorn Argentavis , with a wing span of 6 m or more, which may have subsisted in part on the leftovers of Thylacosmilus kills. They shared their habitat with one of the largest turtles of all time, the 3.

The giant anteater , Myrmecophaga tridactyla, the largest living descendant of South American’s early Cenozoic mammalian fauna Xenarthrans are a curious group of mammals that developed morphological adaptations for specialized diets very early in their history.

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Phase II testing of historic sites should include a title search for historic sites. For Data Recovery of historic sites, additional historical research may include: Census data, such as Agricultural, Population, and Industrial Censuses. Family papers, wills, probate inventories, daybooks, etc. Informant interviews particularly for early 20th century sites.

Field Methods for Archaeological Survey During an archaeological survey, all land within the project boundaries requires inspection.

I live close to Waco Mammoth Site, a new unit of the National Park System. This paleontological site represents the nation’s only recorded discovery of a nursery herd of Columbian mammoths.

Adapted here for online presentation; included are the maps in time-lapse sequence, which require downloading for economy of online time. For references, please refer to Memoir 43, p. The Western Tethys realm embraces the Mediterranean Sea, its Alpine fold belts, and the adjacent cratonic areas. Thus, the area covered by this compilation includes much of northeastern North America and Greenland, all of Europe, and the northern parts of North Africa.

Intensified studies of the classical outcrop areas have led to the development of new stratigraphical and structural concepts, particularly with regard to the evolution of the Caledonian, Hercynian, and Alpine fold belts. This has been paralleled by major efforts in the hitherto little known Arctic frontier areas. The ever-increasing number of radiometric age determinations has contributed much to the dating of orogenic events and the intraplate igneous activity that accompanied the Paleozoic assembly of Pangea, its Mesozoic and Cenozoic break-up, and the Alpine suturing of Africa and Europe.

In addition, faunal analyses and particularly paleomagnetic data have provided new constraints for the paleogeographic reconstruction of the Arctic-North Atlantic and Tethys domains.

The extinction of the dinosaurs

Archeological research, as generally practiced, shares with the rest of anthropology and the other social sciences a concern for the recurrent, patterned aspects of human behavior rather than with the isolation of the unique. It is historical in the sense that it deals with human behavior viewed through time and supplements written sources with the documentation provided by artifactual evidence from the past. During the century or so of its existence as a recognizable scholarly discipline, archeology has come more and more to apply scientific procedures to the collection and analysis of its data, even when its subject matter could be considered humanistic as well as scientific.

Geology Glossary – Definitions of Geologic Terms. Geology is the scientific study of the Earth, the materials of which it is made, the structure of those materials, and the processes acting upon them.

Karst areas consist of chemically soluble rock such as limestone and gypsum. It can be associated with diamonds or gold. The size of the fragments ranges from sand- to cobble-size. The rocks that form from molten lava are classified as extrusive. Terms such as metallic, submetallic are standardized but subjective. Mafic rocks have specific gravities greater than 3. The word mafic derives from the constituents magnesium and ferrum iron in Latin with an adjectival ending.

The rocks are called intrusive if the magma solidifies below the surface.

State of the Species

Each proxy material differs according to: Some proxy records, for example ocean floor sediments, reveal information about long periods of climatic change and evolution years , with a low-frequency resolution years. Others, such as tree rings are useful only during the last 10, years at most, but offer a high frequency annual resolution. The choice of proxy record as with the choice of instrumental record very much depends on what physical mechanism is under review.

The Genetic Evidence. Old World Origins. All human skeletal remains from the Americas are anatomically modern Homo sapiens; thus the peopling of the New World is best understood in the context of the evolution and dispersal of modern humans in the Old human dispersal from Africa across Eurasia began by c. 50 ka and culminated with colonization of the Americas.

The classical model of thin lithospheric plates moving over a global asthenosphere is shown to be implausible. Evidence is presented that appears to contradict continental drift, seafloor spreading and subduction, and the claim that the oceanic crust is relatively young. The problems posed by vertical tectonic movements are reviewed, including evidence for large areas of submerged continental crust in today’s oceans.

It is concluded that the fundamental tenets of plate tectonics might be wrong. Introduction The idea of large-scale continental drift has been around for some years, but the first detailed theory was proposed by Alfred Wegener in It met with widespread rejection, largely because the mechanism he suggested was inadequate — the continents supposedly plowed slowly through the denser oceanic crust under the influence of gravitational and rotational forces.

Interest was revived in the early s with the rise of the new science of paleomagnetism, which seemed to provide strong support for continental drift.

The 14 Red Flags of Dating